The Turkish “model” of civil–military relations

By Ozan Varol

As Egypt underwent a tumultuous military-led transition from autocracy to democracy beginning in 2011, a chorus of commentators advocated a “Turkish model” for civil–military relations in Egypt’s nascent democracy. This article takes up the task of giving content to that elusive phrase, beginning with an account of Turkish military involvement in politics and ending with an explanation of the recent exodus of the Turkish military from politics. It offers observations and lessons for other nations seeking to normalize their civil–military relations.